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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

TECHNIQUE    AND    HUMAN    N
to the rise of the Nazis. There has to be a sense of
frustration as well as misfortune. A Swiss family
Robinson, finding plenty to do on their island, will
not waste time on hatred. But in a more complex
situation the activities that are in fact necessary may
be far less capable of making an immediate appeal
to individuals. In the present difficult state of British
national economy, wre know collectively what is
needed: increased production, diminished consump-
tion, and stimulation of exports. But these are large
general matters, not very visibly related to the
welfare of particular men and women. If the activities
that are needed on such apparently remote grounds
are to be carried out vigorously and cheerfully, ways
must be devised of creating some more immediate
reason for doing what the national economy requires.
This, I think, demands controlled devolution, and
opportunities for desirable more or less independent
action by individuate or by groups that are not very
large.   ^ tf       &.(,$<& GRATIS
Democracy, as it exists in large modern States,
does not give ad/quate scope for political initiative
except to a tiny minority. We are accustomed to
pointing out that what the Greeks called < demo-
cracy" fell short through the exclusion of women
and slaves, but we do not always realize that in some
important respects it was more democratic than
anything that is possible when the governmental area
is extensive. Every citizen could vote on every issue;
he did not have to delegate his power to a representa-
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